Evaluation of a shoe sole UVC device to reduce pathogen colonization on floors, surfaces and patients
T. Rashid, K. Poblete, J. Amadio, I. Hasan, K. Begum, M.J. Alam, K.W. Garey, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas; University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas; University of Edinburg, Edinburg, Scotland
Background: An ultraviolet C (UVC) decontami-nation device that delivers germicidal UVC radiation to the soles of shoes has become available recently.
Aim: To demonstrate that shoe soles can be vectors for healthcare-associated infection, and to investigate if a UVC shoe sole decontamina-tion device would decrease this risk effectively. Methodology: Three bacterial strains (Staphylo-coccus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli) and a non-toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile were spiked on to standard-ized rubber-soled shoe soles and then selected at random for UVC exposure or no UVC exposure. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of the UVC device to decontaminate shoe soles and flooring.
Results: The UVC device decreased shoe sole contamination significantly for all tested bacterial species, and decreased floor contamination significantly for all floor types and species tested (P<0.01 for all experiments). The log10 reduction was the highest for E. coli (mean standard deviation 2.6 0.79), followed by E. faecalis (2.19 0.68), S. aureus (1.74 0.88) and C. difficile (0.42 0.54) (P<0.0001 for all analyses). Exposure of shoe soles to the UVC device decreased contamination significantly
(mean log10 reduction 2.79 1.25; P<0.0001). Proportions of samples from furniture, bed and patient dummy samples decreased from 96-100% positive in controls to 5-8% positive in UVC device experiments (P<0.0001 for all analyses).
Conclusion: A UVC decontamination device was shown to reduce the colony-forming unit counts of relevant pathogenic organisms from shoe soles with subsequent decreased colonization of floors, healthcare equipment, furniture, beds and a patient dummy.
Evaluation of Hospital Floors as a Potential Source of Pathogen Dissemination Using a Nonpathogenic Virus as a Surrogate Marker
Sreelatha Koganti, Heba Alhmidi, Myreen E. Tomas, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Annette Jencson and Curtis J. Donskey Journal of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Hospital floors are frequently contaminated with pathogens, but it is not known wether floors are a potential source of transmission. Wed demonstrated that a nonpathogenic virus inoculated onto floors in hospital rooms disseminated repidly to the hands of patients and to high-touch surfaces inside and outside the room.
Shoe Soles as a Potential Vector for Pathogen Transmission
Rashid T, VonVille H, Hasan I, Garey KW Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shoe soles are possible vectors for infectious diseases. Although studies have been performed assess the prevalence of infectious pathogens on shoe soles and econtamination techniques no systematic review has ever occurred. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the prevalence of infectious agents on shoe bottoms and possible decontamination strategies. Thirteen studies were identified that supported the hypothesis that show soles are vector for infectious pathogens. In conclusion, a high prevalence of microbiologic pathogens was identified from shoe soles studied in the healthcare, community, and animal workder setting. An effective decontamination strategy for shoe soles was not identified.
Physician as an Infective Vector at a Department of Surgery
Katarzyna Paduszynska, Ludmila Gagis, Monika Rucinska, Lech Pomorski
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the degree of risk of bacterial transmission from physician to patient through hands, equipment and enclosing surfaces (shoe soles).
Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the Clinical Department of General and Oncological Surgery UM in Łódz. In days 16.10.2013, 17.10.2013, 18.10.2013 there were done swabs from hands, stethoscopes and soles of shoes from the same group of physicians before and after doctor’s rounds. The presence of alert-pathogens in swabs was regarded as positive result.
Results: Isolates included mostly aerobic saprophytic bacilli and Staphylococcus species coagulase-negative. There were detected a singly cases of Acinetobacter Baumani and Escherichia coli. Alert-pathogens were found in 4 (16%) swabs taken from hand before doctor’s rounds and in 7 (28%) swabs taken after rounds. Stethoscopes were contaminated by alert-pathogens in 3 (12%) cases before doctor’s rounds and in 3 (12%) cases taken after doctor’s rounds. Soles of shoes were contaminated by alert-pathogens in 14 (56%) cases taken before and 16 (65%) cases taken after doctor’s rounds.
Conclusions: 1. Physicians are important factor of bacterial transmission in hospital. 2. Hands, stethoscopes and particularly soles of shoes of medical staff is the source of infection
Theatre shoes – A Link in the Common Pathway of Postoperative Wound Infection?
Rouin Amirfeyz*, Andrew Tasker**, Sami Ali***, Karen Bowker****, Ashley Blom*****
(*). Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, UK (**). Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Cheltenham General Hospital, Cheltenham, UK (***). Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
(****). Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK (*****). Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Bristol, UK
Introduction: Operating department staff are usually required to wear dedicated theatre shoes whilst in the theatre area but there is little evidence to support the beneﬁcial use of theatre shoes.
Patients and Methods: We performed a study to assess the level of bacterial contamination
of theatre shoes at the beginning and end of
a working day, and compared the results with outdoor footwear.
Results: We found the presence of pathogenic bacterial species responsible for postoperative wound infection on all shoe groups, with outdoor shoes being the most heavily contaminated. Samples taken from theatre shoes at the end of duty were less contaminated than those taken at the beginning of the day with the greatest reduction being in the number of coagulase-negative staphylococcal species grown. Studies have demonstrated that ﬂoor bacteria may contribute up to 15% of airborne bacterial colony forming units in operating rooms. The pathogenic bacteria we isolated have also been demonstrated as contaminants in water droplets spilled onto sterile gloves after surgical scrubbing.
Conclusion: Theatre shoes and ﬂoors present
a potential source for postoperative infection. A combination of dedicated theatre shoe use and
a good ﬂoor washing protocol controls the level of shoe contamination by coagulase-negative staphylococci in particular. This ﬁnding is signiﬁcant given the importance of staphylococcal species in postoperative wound infection.
Antibacterial Activity and Sanitizing Efficacy of HealthySole's Shoe UV Device (Kill Rate). Eight Second Activation Time